Communicable Diseases; Transmission, Prevention, and Treatment (2022)

Communicable Diseases; Transmission, Prevention, and Treatment (1)

Communicable diseases have been a leading cause of mortality across the globe. It becomes the major cause of concern in some underdeveloped countries due to improper access to healthcare facilities.

These communicable diseases can sometimes lead to severe complications resulting in numerous deaths. A newly emerged infectious disease COVID-19 has become the top cause for many deaths in the past year. Some other examples of communicable diseases are hepatitis A, B, and C, HIV, salmonella, measles, and blood-borne illnesses. These infectious diseases can generally spread through food, sexual intercourse, insect bites, contact with contaminated fomites, droplets, fecal-oral route, or skin contact.

Even today, infectious diseases have the potential to disturb or destroy human life. Hence, it becomes essential to understand more about these infectious diseases, how they spread, and measures needed for prevention. Let us discuss all the vital factors you need to be aware of regarding communicable diseases.

What are Communicable Diseases?

A communicable disease is an illness caused by certain infectious agents or products transmitted from a contagious person, animal, or susceptible vector. It can be a direct person-to-person transmission or indirect transmission from a plant or animal host or environmental route. Infectious diseases or transmissible diseases are the interchangeable terms used for infectious diseases.

(Video) Infectious Diseases - How do we control them?

Though a lot of research has been done to control communicable diseases, infectious diseases are evolving, posing a threat of new diseases every time.

Symptoms of Communicable Diseases

Symptoms of communicable diseases vary. Some can be mild, while others are fatal and severe. It all depends on the causative infectious agent and the type of disease it causes.

For instance, if you contact rhinovirus, a common cold infectious agent, you will feel a stuffy nose, headache, and sometimes a fever. Occasionally it subsides after some days. But during HIV, it hampers your immune system and leads to severe symptoms. A healthcare provider can treat it with regular medications.

The most common symptoms of communicable diseases are:

  • Fever
  • Acute diarrhea
  • Acute vomiting
  • Lethargy
  • Headache
  • Skin lesions or skin rashes

Risk Factors

Generally, some individual factors interact with one another and form a cluster of risk factors. Some of the common risk factors include;

(Video) COMMUNICABLE DISEASES | What? Why? How?

1. Lack of Hygiene

Handwashing techniques, sanitization, and personal hygiene become the essential elements that play a significant role in limiting the risk of communicable diseases. Lack of hygiene and inadequate sanitization can result in diarrheal diseases and other communicable diseases.

2. Nutritional Deficiency

Nutrition factors increase the susceptibility to communicable diseases and, more significantly, shedding and transmission rates. Consumption of contaminated food also poses a threat to infectious diseases.

3. Environmental Factors

Environmental risk factors such as weather and climate conditions like cold and dust storms can trigger the disease outbreak. The infectivity of a pathogen outside the host depends on various environmental factors like temperature, moisture, and UV light. Seasonal environmental changes have a direct impact on pathogen abundance and its survival.

4. Crowded Places

Overcrowding triggers hygiene-related diseases, causing infections such as diarrheal diseases. Also, crowded places increase the risk of transmission of infections like measles and other illnesses that spread from person to person. Crowded places that result in poor ventilation and increased humidity boost airborne droplets’ transmission from person to person.

5. Other Factors

Factors like living conditions, accessibility to healthcare services, poor response to the initial spread of infection, etc. result in the outbreak of communicable diseases. Sometimes, the individual risk factors interact with each other creating complex emergencies that pose a higher level of risk and more complex routes for disease spread.

(Video) Preventing Communicable Diseases

Read also: Potential Use of PRP Therapy in Treatment of Orthopaedic Diseases and Sport Injuries

Causes of Communicable Diseases

Communicable diseases are caused by infectious agents. These infectious agents can be viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites.

  • Viruses – It is a microorganism that can infect your body cells and multiplies to cause disease. They can damage or change the cell’s protein constitution. The common viral infections include measles, rubella, chickenpox (varicella), herpes zoster, common cold, HIV, and many more.
  • Bacteria – It is a single-celled microorganism that multiplies quickly. Most infections of the body are caused by bacteria like staphylococci, streptococci, e.coli, etc. The common bacterial infections are food poisoning, strep throat, and urinary tract infections.
  • Fungi – A fungus is a microbial organism that attacks human bodies when they are severely weakened. The most common species of fungi are aspergillus and candida. Poor management of these fungi can lead to life-threatening infections.
  • Parasites – Those animals and plants which survive by eating other living things are called parasites. Contaminated waters can host parasites causing parasite infections. Malaria is an example of an infection caused by parasites.

Modes of Transmission

Communicable diseases transmit from person to person through different routes. It can be direct contact with the infectious source, indirect contact, through insect bites, or through contaminated items.

  • Direct transmission occurs when you are in direct contact with a person who is sick. It can be through touching, kissing, or sexual contact.
  • Indirect transmission is seen when you touch a sharing surface that sick people have touched. Infectious germs can enter your body through your hands and cause the disease.
  • Insect or animal bites, which are reservoirs of an infectious agent, can come in contact with your blood and circulate in the body, resulting in diseases.
  • If you eat contaminated food or drink contaminated water, it can transmit the infectious agent to your body.

Preventive Measures

Healthcare systems, government, and individuals should act responsibly to prevent the spread of communicable diseases. Some helpful tips to prevent the spread of infectious diseases are-

  • Handle and prepare food safely – Maintain hygiene, clean the hands, utensils, food thoroughly to remove pathogens.
  • Always eat fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • Avoid eating staple foods.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water before and after your meals.
  • You should clean your hands after using the toilet, during traveling, after sneezing or coughing, and after touching your pets.
  • Clean and disinfect the surfaces frequently like doorknobs, doorbells, etc.
  • Cough and sneeze while covering with a cloth.
  • Avoid sharing personal items like toothbrushes, razors, undergarments, and towels.
  • Get vaccinated as per the immunization protocol.
  • Stay home when sick and isolate yourself from other family members to prevent the spread.

Role of Digital Healthcare Solutions in Preventing Communicable Diseases

Digital technologies are creating a support system to intervene in the progression of these communicable diseases. Digital therapeutic devices play a crucial role in population surveillance, case identification, contact tracing, and evaluation of the spread of the disease.

(Video) Preventing Communicable Diseases

The future of healthcare management is becoming progressively digital. Digital healthcare companies are coming up with effective strategies to better manage and control infectious diseases in the future. Hence, digital software solutions such as big data and artificial intelligence need to be integrated into existing public healthcare systems.

Conclusion

Communicable diseases are the type of infectious diseases that transmit from one person to another. It can be transmitted through direct contact, airborne particles, or contaminated foods and drinks, leading to several infectious diseases. These diseases have mild symptoms but sometimes cause major life-threatening complications.

To avoid the spread of communicable diseases, the first step should be to prevent the risk factors. And follow the preventive measures like ensuring a safe environment by developing hand hygiene habits, proper sanitization, avoiding crowded places if there is a possibility of infection spread, etc. Also, vaccination should be taken for a suitable disease to prevent the spread of a communicable disease. In addition, it is important to isolate a person suffering from an infectious disease to prevent the spread of the disease.

There is also a need to recognize the importance of digital healthcare solutions in the field of communicable diseases. With digitalized healthcare system, we can strengthen our pandemic management and future preparedness to fight infectious diseases.

FAQs

How can we prevent and treat communicable diseases? ›

Learn these healthy habits to protect yourself from disease and prevent germs and infectious diseases from spreading.
  1. Handle & Prepare Food Safely. ...
  2. Wash Hands Often. ...
  3. Clean & Disinfect Commonly Used Surfaces. ...
  4. Cough & Sneeze Into Your Sleeve. ...
  5. Don't Share Personal Items. ...
  6. Get Vaccinated. ...
  7. Avoid Touching Wild Animals.

What are the transmission of communicable diseases? ›

A communicable disease is one that is spread from one person to another through a variety of ways that include: contact with blood and bodily fluids; breathing in an airborne virus; or by being bitten by an insect.

What are 10 communicable diseases? ›

Information for Specific Communicable Diseases
  • Chickenpox / Shingles.
  • COVID-19.
  • Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE)
  • Hepatitis B.
  • Hepatitis C.
  • HIV / AIDS.
  • HIV / STDs / Hepatitis.
  • Influenza.

What are 5 common communicable diseases? ›

List of Communicable Diseases
  • 2019-nCoV.
  • CRE.
  • Ebola.
  • Enterovirus D68.
  • Flu.
  • Hantavirus.
  • Hepatitis A.
  • Hepatitis B.

What is the treatment of diseases? ›

Medical professionals use medicine, therapy, surgery, and other treatments to help lessen the symptoms and effects of a disease. Sometimes these treatments are cures — in other words, they get rid of the disease.

What are the 4 types of disease transmission? ›

The modes (means) of transmission are: Contact (direct and/or indirect), Droplet, Airborne, Vector and Common Vehicle.

What are the six modes of transmission for communicable diseases? ›

Modes of transmission
  • Direct. Direct contact. Droplet spread.
  • Indirect. Airborne. Vehicleborne. Vectorborne (mechanical or biologic)

What are two kinds of transmission? ›

Direct contact transmission occurs when there is physical contact between an infected person and a susceptible person. Indirect contact transmission occurs when there is no direct human-to-human contact.

What are the 20 most common diseases? ›

  • Diabetes.
  • Depression.
  • Anxiety.
  • Hemorrhoid.
  • Yeast infection.
  • Lupus.
  • Shingles.
  • Psoriasis.
Jun 6, 2017

What are the 50 non communicable diseases? ›

The four main types of noncommunicable diseases include cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes.
...
Chronic respiratory disease
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • asthma.
  • occupational lung diseases, such as black lung.
  • pulmonary hypertension.
  • cystic fibrosis.

How can you protect different types of transmitted infections? ›

Use a condom every time you have anal, vaginal, or oral sex. If you have latex allergies, synthetic non-latex condoms can be used. But it is important to note that these condoms have higher breakage rates than latex condoms. Natural membrane condoms are not recommended for STD prevention.

What is the most communicable disease? ›

Key Facts. Measles is one of the most contagious diseases in the world.

How can we prevent communicable diseases Wikipedia? ›

This includes preventive measures such as hand washing, cleaning, disinfecting, sterilizing, and vaccinating.
...
Contents
  1. 1.1 Hand hygiene.
  2. 1.2 Cleaning, Disinfection, Sterilization. 1.2.1 Cleaning. 1.2.2 Disinfection. 1.2.3 Sterilization.
  3. 1.3 Personal protective equipment.
  4. 1.4 Antimicrobial surfaces.

What are the 10 principles of infection prevention? ›

What are the Standard Infection Control Precautions?
  • Hand Hygiene. ...
  • Placement and Infection Assessment. ...
  • Safe Management and Care of Environment. ...
  • Safe Management of Equipment. ...
  • Safe Management of Linen. ...
  • Personal Protective Equipment. ...
  • Respiratory and Cough Hygiene. ...
  • Safe Management of Blood and Body Fluids.
Mar 29, 2021

Why is important to prevent and control the transmission of disease? ›

Infection control practices are critical to reduce the transmission of infections from one person to another, such as from a healthcare worker to a patient or vice versa. See: Everyday healthy habits that prevent the spread of disease. Infection control practices for health care settings and long-term care facilities.

What is the prevention of disease? ›

Definition. Disease prevention is a procedure through which individuals, particularly those with risk factors for a disease, are treated in order to prevent a disease from occurring. Treatment normally begins either before signs and symptoms of the disease occur, or shortly thereafter.

What is the best treatment for infection? ›

Antibiotics are a group of medicines that are used to treat infections. Antibiotics are sometimes called antibacterials or antimicrobials. Antibiotics can be taken by mouth as liquids, tablets, or capsules, or they can be given by injection.

What is the most effective method of preventing communicable disease? ›

Keeping personal hygiene, like taking a daily bath and washing your hands frequently. Hand washing with soap and water is the simplest and one of the most effective ways to prevent transmission of many communicable diseases (Figure 2.5).

What are principles of treatment? ›

Kill the cause of the disease: Use medicines that can kill the pathogens. Each microbe undergoes some specific biochemical life process which helps them to survive. The intake of certain drugs that block these biochemical processes can help in killing the microorganism causing the disease.

What are the 5 routes of transmission? ›

Diseases can spread in many ways
  • Airborne transmission. Airborne transmission occurs when infectious agents are carried by dust suspended in the air. ...
  • Respiratory (droplet) transmission. ...
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) ...
  • Animal or insect transmission. ...
  • Food or water transmission. ...
  • Health care transmission.

What are the 5 types of precautions? ›

Infection Control and Prevention - Transmission-based precautions
  • Contact Precautions. ...
  • Droplet Precautions. ...
  • Airborne Precautions. ...
  • Eye Protection.
Jun 23, 2020

How is transmission mode prevented? ›

Break the chain by cleaning your hands frequently, staying up to date on your vaccines (including the flu shot), covering coughs and sneezes and staying home when sick, following the rules for standard and contact isolation, using personal protective equipment the right way, cleaning and disinfecting the environment, ...

What is a communicable disease definition? ›

Communicable diseases, also known as infectious diseases or transmissible diseases, are illnesses that result from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic (capable of causing disease) biologic agents in an individual human or other animal host.

How are diseases caused and how do you prevent and cure them? ›

Prevention & Treatment
  1. Keep immunizations up to date.
  2. Wash your hands often. ...
  3. Prepare and handle food carefully. ...
  4. Use antibiotics only for infections caused by bacteria. ...
  5. Report to your doctor any rapidly worsening infection or any infection that does not get better after taking a course of antibiotics, if prescribed.

What are the 7 types of transmission? ›

CarWale Gyan: Types of transmissions
  • Manual Transmission. A manual transmission or a stick-shift unit is a type of gearbox that requires driver-intervention to shift the gears. ...
  • Torque Converter Automatic. ...
  • CVT Automatic. ...
  • DCT Automatic. ...
  • AMT.
Apr 21, 2020

What is the method of transmission? ›

A method of transmission is the movement or the transmission of pathogens from a reservoir to a susceptible host. Once a pathogen has exited the reservoir, it needs a mode of transmission to the host through a portal of entry. Transmission can be by direct or indirect contact or through airborne transmission.

What is the best type of transmission? ›

Automatic transmissions offer better drivability and innovation. Drawbacks - One downside of automatic transmissions is that they can be less responsive than manual transmissions. They're also more expensive than other transmissions types.

What are the 100 most common diseases? ›

The Ultimate List of Common Medical Conditions
  • Hyperlipidaemia (high cholesterol)
  • Allergic rhinitis (hay fever)
  • Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GERD)
  • Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
  • Chronic bronchitis (lung infection)
  • Sprain (ligament injury)
  • Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating)
  • Onychocryptosis (ingrown toenail)
Jun 28, 2018

What causes disease? ›

Infectious diseases commonly spread through the direct transfer of bacteria, viruses or other germs from one person to another. This can happen when an individual with the bacterium or virus touches, kisses, or coughs or sneezes on someone who isn't infected.

What are the risk factors of communicable diseases? ›

Key risk factors include crowded conditions, forced displacement, poor quality shelter, poor water, sanitation and hygiene, lack of healthcare facilities and lack of adequate surveillance.

What are the 3 main risk factors for non communicable diseases? ›

The main risk factors contributing to NCDs involve unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and alcohol misuse. Hence, most of these diseases are preventable as they eventually progress in early life due to lifestyle aspects (3).

What are 6 risk factors of non communicable diseases? ›

Depression, diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity, unhealthy diet, smoking, physical inactivity and excess alcohol consumption have been identified by the WHO Global Health Observatory data as common and preventable risk factors that underlie most NCDs.

What are the 100 ways to prevent STDs? ›

How to prevent STDs
  1. Abstinence. Not having sex (including vaginal, oral or anal sex) is the most reliable way to prevent infection.
  2. Get vaccinated. Ask your physician if you should get vaccinated for HPV or hepatitis B.
  3. Have fewer sexual partners. ...
  4. Practice mutual monogamy. ...
  5. Use condoms.

How can you prevent the spread of infection in a care home? ›

Manage care equipment and the care environment safely; Use protective equipment (gloves and aprons) to prevent the spread of infectious agents; Use invasive devices only when clinically indicated, as they increase the risk of infection; Promote sneezing and coughing hygiene.

How many communicable diseases are there? ›

Millions of different viruses may exist, but researchers have only identified about 5,000 types to date.

What are the top 3 infectious diseases? ›

The world's deadliest infections, including Tuberculosis, Malaria and HIV/AIDS, have been considered as the "Big Three" infectious diseases (BTIDs). With leading infections and deaths every year, the BTIDs have been recognized as the world's greatest pandemics.

What are the levels of prevention of communicable disease? ›

These preventive stages are primordial prevention, primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention.

What are types of prevention? ›

  • Primary Prevention—intervening before health effects occur, through.
  • Secondary Prevention—screening to identify diseases in the earliest.
  • Tertiary Prevention—managing disease post diagnosis to slow or stop.

What is the conclusion of communicable diseases? ›

The substantial burden posed by chronic diseases of likely infectious etiology demands global attention and action. Evidence continues to mount implicating microorganisms as important etiologic agents of chronic diseases that contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality.

How can we prevent communicable diseases Wikipedia? ›

This includes preventive measures such as hand washing, cleaning, disinfecting, sterilizing, and vaccinating.
...
Contents
  1. 1.1 Hand hygiene.
  2. 1.2 Cleaning, Disinfection, Sterilization. 1.2.1 Cleaning. 1.2.2 Disinfection. 1.2.3 Sterilization.
  3. 1.3 Personal protective equipment.
  4. 1.4 Antimicrobial surfaces.

What is the most effective method of preventing communicable disease? ›

Keeping personal hygiene, like taking a daily bath and washing your hands frequently. Hand washing with soap and water is the simplest and one of the most effective ways to prevent transmission of many communicable diseases (Figure 2.5).

How can you prevent yourself from the diseases and maintain your health in good condition? ›

9 Ways to Prevent Disease (and To Live Your Healthiest Life)
  1. Make healthy food choices. ...
  2. Get your cholesterol checked. ...
  3. Watch your blood pressure. ...
  4. Get up and get moving. ...
  5. Watch your body mass. ...
  6. Manage blood sugar levels. ...
  7. Quit smoking. ...
  8. Get restful sleep.
Jun 8, 2020

How are diseases caused and how do you prevent and cure them? ›

Prevention & Treatment
  1. Keep immunizations up to date.
  2. Wash your hands often. ...
  3. Prepare and handle food carefully. ...
  4. Use antibiotics only for infections caused by bacteria. ...
  5. Report to your doctor any rapidly worsening infection or any infection that does not get better after taking a course of antibiotics, if prescribed.

What is the importance of preventing communicable diseases? ›

Preventable communicable, or infectious, diseases like malaria and HIV/AIDS account for millions of deaths in the world each year, especially in low-income countries. Noncommunicable, or chronic, diseases like heart disease and diabetes are having an increasing effect across the globe.

What are the 10 principles of infection prevention? ›

What are the Standard Infection Control Precautions?
  • Hand Hygiene. ...
  • Placement and Infection Assessment. ...
  • Safe Management and Care of Environment. ...
  • Safe Management of Equipment. ...
  • Safe Management of Linen. ...
  • Personal Protective Equipment. ...
  • Respiratory and Cough Hygiene. ...
  • Safe Management of Blood and Body Fluids.
Mar 29, 2021

What are the levels of prevention of communicable disease? ›

These preventive stages are primordial prevention, primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention.

What are the principles of control of communicable disease? ›

Principles of Infectious Diseases: Transmission, Diagnosis, Prevention, and Control - PMC.

What is the prevention of disease? ›

Definition. Disease prevention is a procedure through which individuals, particularly those with risk factors for a disease, are treated in order to prevent a disease from occurring. Treatment normally begins either before signs and symptoms of the disease occur, or shortly thereafter.

How can you protect different types of transmitted infections? ›

Use a condom every time you have anal, vaginal, or oral sex. If you have latex allergies, synthetic non-latex condoms can be used. But it is important to note that these condoms have higher breakage rates than latex condoms. Natural membrane condoms are not recommended for STD prevention.

Which is more important disease prevention or disease treatment? ›

It is better to prevent disease rather than to try to find cures for diseases after they occur.

What is the importance of prevention? ›

With respect to human services, prevention typically consists of methods or activities that seek to reduce or deter specific or predictable problems, protect the current state of well-being, or promote desired outcomes or behaviors.

What is the difference between prevention and treatment? ›

Preventive healthcare keeps you healthy in general, while treatment addresses a specific disease or problem that prevention can't completely eliminate.

What are principles of prevention? ›

  • What Are The Principles Of Prevention? ...
  • The 9 Principles Are:
  • #1 Avoiding Risks. ...
  • #2 Evaluating The Risks Which Cannot Be Avoided. ...
  • #3 Combating The Risks At Source. ...
  • #4 Adapting The Work Environment To The Individual. ...
  • #5 Adapting To Technical Progress. ...
  • #6 Replacing The Dangerous By The Non-dangerous, Or The Less Dangerous.
Jan 28, 2021

Videos

1. Communicable Diseases & Prevention
(Oakland Community Health Network)
2. Lecture 1 – Prevention and control of communicable diseases
(Dr\ ElSayed Abdel Rahman Elquafas)
3. Transmission and Prevention of Communicable Diseases
(APC BOOKS)
4. Community Health Nursing: Communicable Diseases
(CASS RN)
5. What is HIV and AIDS? | Transmission, Prevention, Treatment | Infectious Diseases | Don't Memorise
(Don't Memorise)
6. Community Health - Chapter 4, Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases
(Dr. Victoria P. Panna)

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